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Journal Article 
Poly- and perfluoroalkyl substance concentrations in human breast milk and their associations with postnatal infant growth 
Jin, H; Mao, L; Xie, J; Zhao, M; Bai, X; Wen, J; Shen, T; Wu, P 
Science of the Total Environment
ISSN: 0048-9697
EISSN: 1879-1026 
Perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs) and perfluoroalkyl sulfonates are widespread in human breast milk. However, the occurrence of chlorinated polyfluorinated ether sulfonates (Cl-PFESAs) and fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs) in breast milk and their effects on postnatal growth of infants through breast milk consumption are still not well known. This study characterized the occurrence of 16 poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in breast milk from 174 women in Hangzhou, China and investigated the association between lactation exposure to these PFASs through breast milk consumption and the postnatal growth of infants. Our results showed that perfluorooctanoate (mean 87 pg/mL) was the predominant PFAS in breast milk, followed by perfluorohexanoate (41 pg/mL), 6:2 Cl-PFESA (28 pg/mL), and perfluorooctane sulfonate (25 pg/mL). The occurrence and levels of Cl-PFESAs in Chinese breast milk were firstly reported in the current study. The 8:2 and 10:2 FTOH were detected in half of breast milk samples, with the mean concentration of 9.0 pg/mL and 10 pg/mL, respectively. Breast milk concentrations of C8-C10 PFCAs and 6:2 Cl-PFESA were negatively correlated with infant's length gain rate. Exposed to higher levels of 8:2 FTOH were correlated with decreased infant's weight gain rate. Daily intakes of PFASs via the consumption of breast milk were calculated for infants. Overall, this study firstly demonstrated that lactation exposure to C8-C10 PFCAs, 8:2 FTOH, and 6:2 Cl-PFESA through breast milk consumption may affect the postnatal growth of infants. 
Postnatal infant growth; Human breast milk; Chlorinated perfluoroalkyl ether sulfonic acid; Perfluorooctane sulfonate 
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