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2914668 
Journal Article 
Structure-dependent activity of phthalate esters and phthalate monoesters binding to human constitutive androstane receptor 
Zhang, H; Zhang, Z; Nakanishi, T; Wan, Y; Hiromori, Y; Nagase, H; Hu, J 
2015 
Yes 
Chemical Research in Toxicology
ISSN: 0893-228X
EISSN: 1520-5010 
28 
1196-1204 
English 
The present study investigated the human constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) binding activities of 23 phthalate esters and 10 phthalate monoesters using a fast and sensitive human CAR yeast two-hybrid assay. Of 23 phthalate esters, 16 were evaluated as positive, and the 10% relative effective concentrations (REC10) ranged from 0.28 (BBP) to 29.51 μM (DEHP), whereas no obvious binding activities were found for the phthalate esters having alkyl chains more than six carbons in length. Of 10 phthalate monoesters, only monoethyl phthalate (MEP), monoisobutyl phthalate (MIBP), and mono-(2-ethyhexyl) tetrabromophthalate (TBMEHP) elicited human CAR binding activities. The REC10 values of MEP and MIBP were 4.27 and 14.13 μM, respectively, higher than those of their corresponding phthalate esters (1.45 μM for DEP and 0.83 μM for DIBP), whereas TBMEHP (0.66 μM) was much lower than TBHP (>10(2) μM). A molecular docking method was performed to simulate the interaction modes between phthalates and human CAR, and active phthalates were found to lie at almost the same site in the human CAR pocket. The docking results suggest that the strong binding of phthalates to human CAR arises primarily from hydrophobic interactions, π-π interactions, and steric effects and that weak hydrogen bonds and weak halogen bonds greatly contribute to the high binding activity of TBMEHP. In conclusion, the current study clarified that an extensive array of phthalates are activators of human CAR. 
Esters; Phthalic Acids; Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear; constitutive androstane receptor; 438XLITDI3; phthalic acid; 6O7F7IX66E; Index Medicus; Dose-Response Relationship, Drug; Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions; Molecular Docking Simulation; Molecular Structure; Structure-Activity Relationship; Binding Sites; Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear -- metabolism; Phthalic Acids -- chemistry; Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear -- chemistry; Esters -- chemistry; Phthalic Acids -- pharmacology; Esters -- pharmacology 
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