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Journal Article 
Exploring sex differences in human health risk assessment for PFNA and PFDA using a PBPK model 
Kim, SJ; Choi, EJ; Choi, GW; Lee, YB; Cho, HY 
Archives of Toxicology
ISSN: 0340-5761
EISSN: 1432-0738 
has comment/response 5412088 Comment on 'Kim, S.-J., Choi, E.-J., Choi, G.-W., Lee, Y.-B., and Cho, H.-Y. (2019)., Arch Toxicol 93:311-330'
Perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) and perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), which are classified as perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), have been widely used in industrial applications as a surface protectant. PFASs have been detected in wildlife and in humans around the globe. The purposes of this study are to develop and validate a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for detecting PFNA and PFDA in male and female rats, and to apply the model to a human health risk assessment regarding the sex difference. A PBPK model of PFNA and PFDA was established based on an in vivo study in male and female rats. Analytes in biological samples (plasma, nine tissues, urine, and feces) were determined by ultra-liquid chromatography coupled tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method. PFNA and PFDA showed a gender differences in the elimination half-life and volume of distribution. The tissue-plasma partition coefficients were the highest in the liver in both male and female rats. The predicted rat plasma and urine concentrations simulated and fitted were in good agreement with the observed values. The PBPK models of PFNA and PFDA in male and female rats were then extrapolated to a human PBPK model based on human physiological parameters. The external doses were calculated at 3.35 ng/kg/day (male) and 17.0 ng/kg/day (female) for PFNA and 0.530 ng/kg/day (male) and 0.661 ng/kg/day (female) for PFDA. Human risk assessment was estimated using Korean biomonitoring values considering the gender differences. This study provides valuable insight into human health risk assessment regarding PFNA and PFDA exposure. 
Environmental Studies--Toxicology And Environmental Safety; Perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA); Perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA); Human health risk assessment; Gender differences; Mass spectrometry; Liquid chromatography; Analytical chemistry; Pharmacology; Biological properties; Biomonitoring; Risk assessment; Animal models; Perfluorodecanoic acid; Perfluoro compounds; In vivo methods and tests; Rodents; Computer simulation; Biological samples; Gender aspects; Sex differences; Industrial applications; Perfluoroalkyls; Tissues; Wildlife; Health risk assessment; Mass spectroscopy; Health risks 
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