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Journal Article 
The occurrence of perfluoroalkyl acids in an important feed material (fishmeal) and its potential risk through the farm-to-fork pathway to humans 
Li, X; Dong, S; Zhang, W; Fan, X; Wang, R; Wang, P; Su, X 
Journal of Hazardous Materials
ISSN: 0304-3894
EISSN: 1873-3336 
Few studies have attempted to elucidate the occurrence of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in animal feeds and how they play a role in human ingestion. Fishmeal was the most important animal-derived feed in global husbandry and may have been subjected to PFAA contamination considering the PFAAs' ubiquitous distribution in aquatic ecosystems. We collected ninety-two commercial fishmeal from the most important fishmeal-producing countries and found that Σ16PFAAs ranged from 0.65 to 85.5 ng/g (average: 18.2 ng/g, 12% moisture). PFOS still predominated, with unexpected high detection of PFUnDA. The wide occurrence of short-chain PFAAs (e.g., PFBA, PFBS) in fishmeal were found for the first time. From a geographical view, PFAA levels in fishmeal that originated from the Northern Hemisphere were significantly higher than those from the Southern Hemisphere (p < 0.01). Higher levels of under-studied long-chain PFAAs (PFNA, PFDA, PFUnDA, PFDoDA and PFTrDA) weighted more in industrialized areas than less industrialized areas, whereas the legacy PFAAs (PFOS, PFOA and PFHxS) were comparable among all regions. The estimated daily intake was calculated from animal feed to humans (via cultured fish) from 20 Chinese provinces by the Monte Carlo Simulation. A proportion of 29.8% of residents from the Fujian Province exceeded the EFSA's suggestion for PFOS ingestion. 
Perfluoroalkyl acids; Fishmeal; Farm-to-fork; Estimated daily intake; Monte Carlo Simulation 
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