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3470830 
Journal Article 
Source attribution of poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in surface waters from Rhode Island and the New York metropolitan area 
Zhang, X; Lohmann, R; Dassuncao, C; Hu, XC; Weber, AK; Vecitis, CD; Sunderland, EM 
2016 
Environmental Science & Technology Letters
EISSN: 2328-8930 
316-321 
English 
Exposure to poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) has been associated with adverse health effects in humans and wildlife. Understanding pollution sources is essential for environmental regulation, but source attribution for PFASs has been confounded by limited information about industrial releases and rapid changes in chemical production. Here we use principal component analysis (PCA), hierarchical clustering, and geospatial analysis to understand source contributions to 14 PFASs measured across 37 sites in the northeastern United States in 2014. PFASs are significantly elevated in urban areas compared to rural sites except for perfluorobutanesulfonate, N-methyl perfluorooctanesulfonamidoacetic acid, perfluoroundecanate, and perfluorododecanate. The highest PFAS concentrations across sites were those of perfluorooctanate (PFOA, 56 ng L-1) and perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS, 43 ng L-1), and perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) levels are lower than earlier measurements of U.S. surface waters. PCA and cluster analysis indicate three main statistical groupings of PFASs. Geospatial analysis of watersheds reveals the first component/cluster originates from a mixture of contemporary point sources such as airports and textile mills. Atmospheric sources from the waste sector are consistent with the second component, and the metal smelting industry plausibly explains the third component. We find this source-attribution technique is effective for better understanding PFAS sources in urban areas. 
• NMeFOSAA
     Literature Search
          Pubmed
          WOS
     Screening Results
          Excluded/Not on Topic
• ^Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances (PFAS)
     PFOA (335-67-1) and PFOS (1763-23-1)
          Literature Search – Adverse outcome pathway (2015-present)
               Pubmed
               WOS
     PFBS (375-73-5)
          Literature Search
               Pubmed
               WOS
     PFDoA (307-55-1)
          Literature Search
               Pubmed
     PFUnA (2058-94-8)
          Literature Search
               Pubmed
     PFHxS (355-46-4)
          Literature search
               WOS
     NMeFOSAA (2355-31-9)
          Literature Search
               Pubmed
               WOS
• PFBS
          Pubmed
          WOS
          Excluded/Not on Topic
     Search
          PubMed
          WOS
     Included
          Supporting References
     Excluded
          WOS
• PFDoA
     Literature Search
          Pubmed
     Screening Results
          Excluded/Not on Topic
• PFHxS
     Literature Search
          WOS
     Screening Results
          Excluded/Not on Topic
• PFOA (335-67-1) and PFOS (1763-23-1)
     Literature Search – Adverse outcome pathway (2015-present)
          Pubmed
          WOS
     Screening Results
          Excluded/Not on Topic
     Literature Search Update (2013-2019)
          PubMed
          WOS
• PFUnA
     Literature Search
          Pubmed
     Screening Results
          Excluded/Not on Topic