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3859698 
Journal Article 
Exposure of Norwegian toddlers to perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS): The association with breastfeeding and maternal PFAS concentrations 
Papadopoulou, E; Sabaredzovic, A; Namork, E; Nygaard, UC; Granum, B; Haug, LS 
2016 
Yes 
Environment International
ISSN: 0160-4120
EISSN: 1873-6750 
94 
687-694 
English 
High exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) has been associated with adverse health effects in children. PFASs exposure pathways of toddlers might differ from those of infants and adults, and the investigations on determinants of PFASs exposure in early childhood are scarce. Our aims were to examine the PFAS blood concentrations in Norwegian toddlers and to assess their relationship with maternal PFAS concentrations in pregnancy and breastfeeding duration. We determined PFAS concentrations in 112 plasma samples of 3-year-old children collected at 2010-2011 and 99 maternal serum samples collected around delivery at 2007-2008. PFAS concentrations in children were regressed on duration of breastfeeding, and the effect modification by maternal prenatal PFAS concentrations was examined in 55 mother-child pairs. Six PFASs were quantifiable in >50% of both maternal and children samples. Positive and significant correlations ranging between 0.50 and 0.66 were found between maternal and child concentrations of the same PFAS congeners. Nevertheless, toddlers had higher total PFAS blood concentrations than their mothers, due to higher concentrations of PFOA, PFNA and PFHxS. Every month of breastfeeding was associated with an increase of 3.3% (95% Confidence Intervals (CI): 0.8-5.8) for PFOS, 4.7% (95%CI: 2.8-6.6) for PFOA and 6.1% (95% CI: 2.6-9.7) for PFHpS in toddlers' plasma and a dose-response association was found, after adjustment for confounders. However, PFNA and PFUnDA concentrations in children were not associated with either maternal concentrations or breastfeeding duration. Our findings suggest that transplacental transfer, prenatally, and breastfeeding, postanatally, are among the main determinants of PFOS, PFOA, PFHxS and PFHpS concentrations in toddlers, while that was not the case for PFNA and PFUnDA. Nevertheless, due to the small number of mother child-pairs in our study, our results should be interpreted with caution. 
PFOA; PFNA; Children; Toddlers; Prenatal exposure; Breastfeeding 
• ^Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances (PFAS)
     PFOA (335-67-1) and PFOS (1763-23-1)
          Literature Search – Adverse outcome pathway (2015-present)
               Pubmed
               WOS
     PFUnA (2058-94-8)
          Literature Search
               Pubmed
               WOS
     PFNA (375-95-1)
          Literature Search
               Pubmed
               WOS
     PFHpS (375-92-8)
          Literature Search
               Pubmed
               WOS
     PFHxS (355-46-4)
          Literature search
               Pubmed
               WOS
• PFHpS
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          Pubmed
          WOS
     Screening Results
          Toxicokinetic studies
               ADME
          Susceptible populations
• PFHxS
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          PubMed
          WOS
     Screening Results
          Toxicokinetic studies
               ADME
• PFNA
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     Screening Results
          Excluded/Not on Topic
     PFNA Literature Search pre-2019
          WOS
          Pubmed
• PFOA (335-67-1) and PFOS (1763-23-1)
     Literature Search – Adverse outcome pathway (2015-present)
          Pubmed
          WOS
     Screening Results
          Toxicokinetic studies
               ADME
          Susceptible populations
     Literature Search Update (2013-2019)
          PubMed
          WOS
• PFUnA
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     Screening Results
          Susceptible populations