Perfluorinated compounds are fully fluorinated anthropogenic substances that have been used in various products, applications, and industrial processes. Due to their persistence and toxic effects, some of them are restricted, and therefore replacement products have been developed. The aim of the study was to quantify the body burden of different perfluorinated substances in two adult populations living close to or about 80km apart from a former perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) production plant who are exposed via drinking water, and in a control population. In this plant, the replacement emulsifier 3H-perfluoro-3-[(3-methoxy-propoxy)propanoic acid] (ADONA) has been used in the production of fluoropolymers since 2008. We quantified 7 perfluorinated compounds and ADONA in a total of 396 plasma samples collected at different time points. With regard to samples collected in 2015 or 2016, the highest 95th percentile levels were 13.5μg/l for perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), 3.0μg/l for perfluorononanoate (PFNA), and 1.5μg/l for perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS). For PFOA, the highest 95th percentile was found at the site close to the facility (85.5μg/l), while in the control region the value was 2.4μg/l. Overall, the concentration of PFOA and PFOS declined over time in all study regions. ADONA was detected only in few samples slightly above the limit of quantification (0.2μg/l). While health risks related to ADONA are unlikely under the present exposure situation, the exposure to PFOA via tap water should be reduced markedly, especially for the population living close to the plant.