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Journal Article 
Assessing exposure to phthalates - The human biomonitoring approach 
Wittassek, M; Koch, HM; Angerer, J; Bruning, T 
Molecular Nutrition and Food Research
ISSN: 1613-4125
EISSN: 1613-4133 
Some phthalates are developmental and reproductive toxicants in animals. Exposure to phthalates is considered to be potentially harmful to human health as well. Based on a comprehensive literature research, we present an overview of the sources of human phthalate exposure and results of exposure assessments with special focus on human biomonitoring data. Among the general population, there is widespread exposure to a number of phthalates. Foodstuff is the major source of phthalate exposure, particularly for the long-chain phthalates such as di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate. For short-chain phthalates such as di-n-butyl-phthalate, additional pathways are of relevance. In general, children are exposed to higher phthalate doses than adults. Especially, high exposures can occur through some medications or medical devices. By comparing exposure data with existing limit values, one can also assess the risks associated with exposure to phthalates. Within the general population, some individuals exceed tolerable daily intake values for one or more phthalates. In high exposure groups, (intensive medical care, medications) tolerable daily intake transgressions can be substantial. Recent findings from animal studies suggest that a cumulative risk assessment for phthalates is warranted, and a cumulative exposure assessment to phthalates via human biomonitoring is a major step into this direction. 
Biomonitoring; Daily intake; Exposure assessment; Phthalates; Risk assessment 
• BBP (Butyl benzyl phthalate)
     Additional Search Strategies
     Excluded: No Primary Data on Health Effects
          Exposure levels
• Dibutyl Phthalate (DBP)
     Database Searches
          Web of Science
     LitSearch Nov 2012
          Merged reference set
     Secondary Literature
          Reviews and Editorials
• Diisobutyl Phthalate (DIBP) Final
     Additional Search Strategies
          References obtained during assessment process
     Secondary Literature
          Reviews & editorials
     Cited in September 2014 DIBP Preliminary Materials
• Diisononyl Phthalate (DINP)
     Literature Search
          LitSearch May 2013
               Web of Science
     Excluded: No Primary Data on Health Effects
          Exposure levels
• Phthalates – Targeted Search for Epidemiological Studies
     Source – all searches
     Source – no date limit through June 2013 (Private)