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3859724 
Journal Article 
The impact of two fluoropolymer manufacturing facilities on downstream contamination of a river and drinking water resources with per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances 
Bach, C; Dauchy, X; Boiteux, V; Colin, A; Hemard, J; Sagres, V; Rosin, C; Munoz, JF 
2017 
Yes 
Environmental Science and Pollution Research
ISSN: 0944-1344
EISSN: 1614-7499 
24 
4916-4925 
English 
Perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are emerging contaminants that have been detected in the environment, biota, and humans. Drinking water is a route of exposure for populations consuming water contaminated by PFAS discharges. This research study reports environmental measurement concentrations, mass flows, and the fate of dozens of PFASs in a river receiving effluents from two fluoropolymer manufacturing facilities. In addition to quantified levels of PFASs using LC- and GC-MS analytical methods, the total amount of unidentified PFASs and precursors was assessed using two complementary analytical methods, absorbable organic fluorine (AOF) determination and oxidative conversion of perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acid (PFCA) precursors. Several dozen samples were collected in the river (water and sediment) during four sampling campaigns. In addition, samples were collected in two well fields and from the outlet of the drinking water treatment plants after chlorination. We estimated that 4295 kg PFHxA, 1487 kg 6:2FTSA, 965 kg PFNA, 307 kg PFUnDA, and 14 kg PFOA were discharged in the river by the two facilities in 2013. High concentrations (up to 176 ng/g dw) of odd long-chain PFASs (PFUnDA and PFTrDA) were found in sediment samples. PFASs were detected in all 15 wells, with concentrations varying based on the location of the well in the field. Additionally, the presence of previously discharged PFASs was still measurable. Significant discrepancies between PFAS concentration profiles in the wells and in the river suggest an accumulation and transformation of PFCA precursors in the aquifer. Chlorination had no removal efficiency and no unidentified PFASs were detected in the treated water with either complementary analytical method. Although the total PFAS concentrations were high in the treated water, ranging from 86 to 169 ng/L, they did not exceed the currently available guideline values. 
PFAS
• ^Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances (PFAS)
     PFOA (335-67-1) and PFOS (1763-23-1)
          Literature Search – Adverse outcome pathway (2015-present)
               Pubmed
               WOS
     PFUnA (2058-94-8)
          Literature Search
               Pubmed
               WOS
     PFNA (375-95-1)
          Literature Search
               Pubmed
               WOS
     PFHxA (307-24-4)
          Literature Search
               Pubmed
               WOS
• PFBA
     Protocol References
• PFNA
     PFNA Literature Search pre-2019
          Pubmed
          WOS
     Literature Search
          Pubmed
          Toxline
          WOS
     PFNA May 2019 Update
          Pubmed
          Toxnet
          Web of Science
     Screening Results
          Excluded/Not on Topic
     Title and Abstract Screening
          Excluded
               Not relevant to PECO
• PFOA (335-67-1) and PFOS (1763-23-1)
     Literature Search – Adverse outcome pathway (2015-present)
          Pubmed
          WOS
     Screening Results
          Excluded/Not on Topic
     Literature Search Update (2013-2019)
          PubMed
          WOS
• PFUnA
     Literature Search
          Pubmed
          WOS
     Screening Results
          Excluded/Not on Topic