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Book/Book Chapter 
Science and decisions: Advancing risk assessment 
National Research Council :: NRC 
The National Academies Press 
Washington, DC 
Risk assessment has become a dominant public policy tool for making choices, based on limited resources, to protect public health and the environment. It has been instrumental to the mission of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as well as other federal agencies in evaluating public health concerns, informing regulatory and technological decisions, prioritizing research needs and funding, and in developing approaches for cost-benefit analysis.

However, risk assessment is at a crossroads. Despite advances in the field, risk assessment faces a number of significant challenges including lengthy delays in making complex decisions; lack of data leading to significant uncertainty in risk assessments; and many chemicals in the marketplace that have not been evaluated and emerging agents requiring assessment.

Science and Decisions makes practical scientific and technical recommendations to address these challenges. This book is a complement to the widely used 1983 National Academies book, Risk Assessment in he Federal Government (also known as the Red Book). The earlier book established a framework for the concepts and conduct of risk assessment that has been adopted by numerous expert committees, regulatory agencies, and public health institutions. The new book embeds these concepts within a broader framework for risk-based decision-making. Together, these are essential references for those working in the regulatory and public health fields. 
• Arsenic Hazard ID
• Arsenic (Inorganic)
     1. Literature
          Identified during manual review of authoritative sources
     5. Susceptibility Screening
          Excluded/Not relevant
     Cited in Volume 1
• Arsenic Susceptibility
     1. Susceptibility Literature Screening
          NRC Chapter 5 References
     2. Excluded
          Not Relevant
• BBP (Butyl benzyl phthalate)
     Additional Search Strategies
     Excluded: No Primary Data on Health Effects
     Secondary Literature
• Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP)
• tert-Butanol
     Cited in Document
• n-Butanol
     • Cited 2016 Public Comment Draft
          Tox Review
• tert-Butanol
     Cited in Public Comment Draft – May 2016
          Toxicological Review
• Dibutyl Phthalate (DBP)
• Diisobutyl Phthalate (DIBP) Final
     Additional Search Strategies
          References obtained during assessment process
     No Primary Data on Toxic Effects
          Not chemical specific
     Cited in September 2014 DIBP Preliminary Materials
• 1,4-Dioxane - with inhalation update
     Final (2013)
     External Review Draft (2011)
• Dioxin (2012 Project Page for Final Report)
• Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD)
     Guidance/contextual references added during assessment development
• RDX (121-82-4)
     Cited 2015 (private)
• Trichloroacetic acid (TCA) (Final, 2011)
• Trimethylbenzenes (Interagency Science Discussion Draft)
     Primary Literature Search
     Primary Literature Search- Considered
• Trimethylbenzenes (TMB)
     Considered Studies
     Cited Studies
     Cited in Tox Review – Revised TMBs Draft
     Cited in Revised TMBs Draft - All
• ISA-Ozone (2020 Final Project Page)
     Full-Text Screening Included
          References from Other Sources
     Included in ISA First Draft
          Integrated Synthesis
     Included in ISA Final Draft
          Integrated Synthesis
• Exposure Factors Handbook (Post 2011)
     Chapter 1
     Chapter 2
• Nanoscale Carbon
     All References Cited
     External Review Draft
          Research Planning
     Peer Reviewed Draft
          Research Planning: Ch. 6
     Final Case Study
          Research Planning: Ch. 6
• Nanoscale Silver