Health & Environmental Research Online (HERO)


Print Feedback Export to File
3858514 
Journal Article 
Perfluorinated alkyl acids in plasma of American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) from Florida and South Carolina 
Bangma, JT; Bowden, JA; Brunell, AM; Christie, I; Finnell, B; Guillette, MP; Jones, M; Lowers, RH; Rainwater, TR; Reiner, JL; Wilkinson, PM; Guillette, LJ 
2017 
Yes 
Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
ISSN: 0730-7268
EISSN: 1552-8618 
36 
917-925 
English 
The present study aimed to quantitate 15 perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in 125 adult American alligators at 12 sites across the southeastern United States. Of those 15 PFAAs, 9 were detected in 65% to 100% of samples: perfluorooctanoic acid, perfluorononanoic acid, perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA), perfluoroundecanoic acid (PFUnA), perfluorododecanoic acid, perfluorotridecanoic acid (PFTriA), perfluorotetradecanoic acid, perfluorohexanesulfonic acid (PFHxS), and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS). Males (across all sites) showed significantly higher concentrations of 4 PFAAs: PFOS (p = 0.01), PFDA (p = 0.0003), PFUnA (p = 0.021), and PFTriA (p = 0.021). Concentrations of PFOS, PFHxS, and PFDA in plasma were significantly different among the sites in each sex. Alligators at both Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge (FL, USA) and Kiawah Nature Conservancy (SC, USA) exhibited some of the highest PFOS concentrations (medians of 99.5 ng/g and 55.8 ng/g, respectively) in plasma measured to date in a crocodilian species. A number of positive correlations between PFAAs and snout-vent length were observed in both sexes, suggesting that PFAA body burdens increase with increasing size. In addition, several significant correlations among PFAAs in alligator plasma may suggest conserved sources of PFAAs at each site throughout the greater study area. The present study is the first to report PFAAs in American alligators, to reveal potential PFAA hot spots in Florida and South Carolina, and to provide a contaminant of concern when assessing anthropogenic impacts on ecosystem health. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:917-925. Published 2016 Wiley Periodicals Inc. on behalf of SETAC. This article is a US government work and, as such, is in the public domain in the United States of America. 
Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS); Perfluorohexanesulfonic acid (PFHxS); Alligator; Crocodilian; Plasma 
• ^Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances (PFAS)
     PFOA (335-67-1) and PFOS (1763-23-1)
          Literature Search – Adverse outcome pathway (2015-present)
               Pubmed
               WOS
     PFDoA (307-55-1)
          Literature Search
               Pubmed
               WOS
     PFUnA (2058-94-8)
          Literature Search
               Pubmed
               WOS
     PFDA (335-76-2)
          Literature Search
               Pubmed
               WOS
     PFNA (375-95-1)
          Literature Search
               Pubmed
               WOS
     PFHxS (355-46-4)
          Literature search
               Pubmed
               WOS
• PFDA
     Literature Search
          Pubmed
          WOS
     Screening Results
          Excluded/Not on Topic
     Title and Abstract Screening
          Excluded
• PFDoA
     Literature Search
          Pubmed
          WOS
     Screening Results
          Excluded/Not on Topic
• PFHxS
     Literature Search
          PubMed
          Toxline
          WOS
     Screening Results
          Excluded/Not on Topic
               PubMed
     Title and Abstract Screening
          Excluded
               Not relevant to PECO
• PFNA
     Literature Search
          Pubmed
          Toxline
          WOS
     Screening Results
          Excluded/Not on Topic
     PFNA Literature Search pre-2019
          Pubmed
          WOS
     PFNA May 2019 Update
          Pubmed
          Toxnet
          Web of Science
     Title and Abstract Screening
          Excluded
               Not relevant to PECO
• PFOA (335-67-1) and PFOS (1763-23-1)
     Literature Search – Adverse outcome pathway (2015-present)
          Pubmed
          WOS
     Screening Results
          Excluded/Not on Topic
     Literature Search Update (2013-2019)
          PubMed
          WOS
• PFUnA
     Literature Search
          Pubmed
          WOS
     Screening Results
          Excluded/Not on Topic