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2919070 
Journal Article 
The effect of prenatal exposure to phthalates on food allergy and early eczema in inner-city children 
Stelmach, I; Majak, P; Jerzynska, J; Podlecka, D; Stelmach, W; Polańska, K; Ligocka, D; Hanke, W 
2015 
Yes 
Allergy and Asthma Proceedings
ISSN: 1088-5412
EISSN: 1539-6304 
Allergy Asthma Proc. 
36 
72-78 
English 
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that maternal prenatal and children urine metabolite concentration of phthalates would be associated with food allergy and early eczema among inner-city children. The study was based on data from the Polish Mother and Child Cohort.

METHODS: Prenatal and postnatal exposure to the following phthalates: diethyl phthalate, diisobutyl phthalate, di-n-butyl phthalate, butyl-benzyl phthalate, di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, diisononyl phthalate, and di-n-octyl phthalate were determined by measuring phthalate metabolites in the urine collected from the mothers during the third trimester of pregnancy and from their children at age 2 years. Pre- and postnatal observations limited the response rate and final sample size; data from 147 participants were included in the analysis. Children's health status was assessed at 24 months of age by using a questionnaire administered to the mothers. We studied associations between the urine level of phthalates and the presence of food allergy and atopic dermatitis in logistic regression analysis. All associations were adjusted for independent risk factors of dependent variables. Associations with atopic dermatitis were adjusted for the effect of atopy in the family, the father's education, frequency of house cleaning, and breastfeeding; associations with food allergy were adjusted for the presence of pets at home during pregnancy and breastfeeding.

RESULTS: The prevalence of the outcomes were as follows: atopic dermatitis, 12.2%, and food allergy, 48.9%. We showed that higher urine concentrations of monobenzyl phthalate in mothers during pregnancy increased the risk of food allergy in children during the first 2 years of life (odds ratio 4.17 [95% confidence interval, 1.17-17.89]). There were no associations with children's urine and allergic symptoms.

CONCLUSIONS: Results of our study indicated awareness of environmental factors that may affect children's health because the phthalates were shown to be risk factors for food allergy in children. 
Adult; Age of Onset; Child, Preschool; Cities; Cohort Studies; Eczema/epidemiology/etiology/urine; Food Hypersensitivity/epidemiology/etiology/urine; Maternal Exposure/adverse effects; Phthalic Acids/adverse effects/urine; Pregnancy; Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects; Prevalence; Risk Factors; 6O7F7IX66E 
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