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3856458 
Journal Article 
An ultra-sensitive method for the analysis of perfluorinated alkyl acids in drinking water using a column switching high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry 
Dasu, K; Nakayama, SF; Yoshikane, M; Mills, MA; Wright, JM; Ehrlich, S 
2017 
Yes 
Journal of Chromatography A
ISSN: 0021-9673
EISSN: 1873-3778 
1494 
46-54 
English 
In epidemiological research, it has become increasingly important to assess subjects' exposure to different classes of chemicals in multiple environmental media. It is a common practice to aliquot limited volumes of samples into smaller quantities for specific trace level chemical analyses. A novel method was developed for the determination of 14 perfluorinated alkyl acids (PFAAs) in small volumes (10mL) of drinking water using off-line solid phase extraction (SPE) pre-treatment followed by on-line pre-concentration on a WAX column before analysis on column-switching high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). In general, large volumes (100-1000mL) have been used for the analysis of PFAAs in drinking water. The current method requires approximately 10mL of drinking water concentrated by using an SPE cartridge and eluted with methanol. A large volume injection of the extract was introduced on to a column-switching HPLC-MS/MS using a mix-mode SPE column for the trace level analysis of PFAAs in water. The recoveries for most of the analytes in the fortified laboratory blanks ranged from 73±14% to 128±5%. The lowest concentration minimum reporting levels (LCMRL) for the 14 PFAAs ranged from 0.59 to 3.4ng/L. The optimized method was applied to a pilot-scale analysis of a subset of drinking water samples from an epidemiological study. These samples were collected directly from the taps in the households of Ohio and Northern Kentucky, United States and the sources of drinking water samples are both surface water and ground water, and supplied by different water distribution facilities. Only five PFAAs, perfluoro-1-butanesulfonic acid (PFBS), perfluoro-1- -hexanesulfonic acid (PFHxS), perfluoro-1-octanesulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluoro-n-heptanoic acid (PFHpA) and perfluoro-n-octanoic acid (PFOA) are detected above the LCMRL values. The median concentrations of these five PFAAs detected in the samples was ≤4.1ng/L with PFOS at 7.6ng/L and PFOA at 10ng/L. Concentrations of perfluoro-1-decanesulfonic acid, PFDS and other perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids were below the LCMRL values. 
• ^Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances (PFAS)
     PFOA (335-67-1) and PFOS (1763-23-1)
          Literature Search – Adverse outcome pathway (2015-present)
               Pubmed
               WOS
     PFBS (375-73-5)
          Literature Search
               Pubmed
               WOS
     PFHpA (375-85-9)
          Literature Search
               Pubmed
               WOS
     PFDS (335-77-3)
          Literature Search
               Pubmed
               WOS
     PFHxS (355-46-4)
          Literature search
               Pubmed
               WOS
• PFBS
          Pubmed
          WOS
          Excluded/Not on Topic
     Search
          PubMed
          WOS
     Excluded
          WOS
• PFDS
     Literature Search
          Pubmed
          WOS
• PFHpA
     Literature Search
          Pubmed
          WOS
     Screening Results
          Excluded/Not on Topic
• PFHxS
     Literature Search
          PubMed
          WOS
     Screening Results
          Excluded/Not on Topic
• PFNA
     Literature Search
          Toxline
     PFNA May 2019 Update
          Toxnet
• PFOA (335-67-1) and PFOS (1763-23-1)
     Literature Search – Adverse outcome pathway (2015-present)
          Pubmed
          WOS
     Screening Results
          Excluded/Not on Topic
     Literature Search Update (2013-2019)
          PubMed
          WOS