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Technical Report 
EPA Report 
Exposure factors handbook: 2011 edition 
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency :: U.S. EPA 
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, National Center for Environmental Assessment 
Washington, DC 
has individual parts 10721945 Exposure factors handbook 2011 edition (final report). Chapter 3 — Ingestion of water and other select liquids
The mission of National Center for Environmental Assessment (NCEA) of EPA's Office of Research and Development is to provide guidance and risk assessments aimed at protecting human health and the environment. To accomplish this mission, NCEA works to develop and improve the models, databases, tools, assumptions, and extrapolations used in risk assessments. This handbook is a tool developed by NCEA aimed at refining the assumptions used in exposure assessments and reducing uncertainty.

This handbook was first published in 1989 and later updated in 1997 to provide statistical data on the various human factors used in assessing exposure. This revised edition of the handbook provides the most up-to-date data on these exposure factors. The recommended values are based solely on our interpretations of the available data. In many situations different values may be appropriate to use in consideration of policy, precedent or other factors.

The Exposure Factors Handbook provides a summary of the available statistical data on various factors used in assessing human exposure. This Handbook is addressed to exposure assessors inside the Agency as well as outside, who need to obtain data on standard factors to calculate human exposure to environmental agents.

These factors include: drinking water consumption, soil ingestion, inhalation rates, dermal factors including skin area and soil adherence factors, consumption of fruits and vegetables, fish, meats, dairy products, homegrown foods, human milk intake, human activity factors, consumer product use, and building characteristics. Recommended values are for the general population and also for various segments of the population who may have characteristics different from the general population. NCEA has strived to include full discussions of the issues that assessors should consider in deciding how to use these data and recommendations. 
• Ammonia
     Literature Search – March 2012 (private)
     Literature Search Results
     Not Chemical Specific
          Guidance, notices
     Cited 2016
• Arsenic Hazard ID
• Arsenic (Inorganic)
     3. Hazard ID Screening
          Potentially relevant epidemiology studies
     Cited in Volume 1
     Cited in Volume 2b
• Chromium VI
     Not in Lit Search
• PCBs
     Cited (Nov 2012)
• ISA - Lead (2023 External Review Draft Project Page)
     Included in Peer Input Draft
          Appendix 2 (Exposure)
     Included in External Review Draft
          Appendix 2 (Exposure)
• ISA-NOx (2016)
          Final Cited
• ISA-Ozone (2013 Final Project Page)
          3rd Draft
• ISA-PM (2019)
     1st Draft
          Chapter 4
     Final ISA
          Chapter 4
     Chapter Review
     Cited in First ERD Nov2015
     Cited Second ERD Dec2016
     Cited in Final ISA Dec2017
• OPPT_1,4-Dioxane_A. Summary
     Cited in TSCA RE related document
• OPPT_1,4-Dioxane_D. Exposure
     Total – title/abstract screening
          On topic
               Supplemental search
                    Supplemental other
• OPPT_1-Bromopropane (1-BP)_A. Summary
     Cited in TSCA RE related document
• OPPT_Asbestos, Part I: Chrysotile_A. Summary
     Cited in TSCA RE related document
     Considered in Risk Evaluation
• OPPT_Carbon Tetrachloride_C. Engineering
• OPPT_Cyclic Aliphatic Bromine Cluster (HBCD)_A. Summary
     Cited in TSCA RE related document
• OPPT_Methylene Chloride_C. Engineering
• OPPT_N-methylpyrrolidone (NMP)_A. Summary
     Cited in TSCA RE related document
• OPPT_N-methylpyrrolidone (NMP)_C. Engineering
• OPPT_Perchloroethylene (Perc)_A. Summary
     Cited in TSCA RE related document
     Supplemental References
          Supporting References
• PFOA and PFOS OW MCLG Approaches
     Cited in White Papers
• Exposure Factors Handbook (Post 2011)
     Chapter 3
     Chapter 5
     Chapter 9
     Chapter 11
     Chapter 12
     Chapter 19