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2804030 
Journal Article 
Variability and predictors of urinary phthalate metabolites in Spanish pregnant women 
Valvi, D; Monfort, N; Ventura, R; Casas, M; Casas, L; Sunyer, J; Vrijheid, M 
2015 
Yes 
International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
ISSN: 1438-4639
EISSN: 1618-131X 
218 
220-231 
English 
Developmental exposure to phthalates may be associated with adverse health outcomes but information on the variability and predictors of urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations during pregnancy is limited. We evaluated in Spanish pregnant women (n=391) the reproducibility of urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations and predictors of exposure. We measured mono-(4-methyl-7-hydroxyoctyl) phthalate (7-OHMMeOP), mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), mono-(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP), mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP), mono-(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl) phthalate (MECPP), mono-(2-carboxyhexyl) phthalate (MCMHP), mono-benzyl phthalate (MBzP), mono-ethyl phthalate (MEP), mono-iso-butyl phthalate (MiBP) and mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP) in two spot urine samples collected in the first and third pregnancy trimesters. Questionnaires on predictors and food-frequency questionnaires were administered in the first and/or third pregnancy trimesters. Using creatinine-adjusted phthalate metabolite concentrations (log10-trasformed) we calculated intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs). Linear mixed and regression models assessed the associations between predictors and phthalate metabolites. The ICCs ranged from 0.24 to 0.07 and were higher for MBzP, MEP, MiBP, and lower for MEOHP and MEHHP. Overweight, lower education and social class, and less frequent consumption of organic food were associated with higher levels of some phthalate metabolites. The use of household cleaning products (bleach, ammonia, glass cleaners, oven cleaning sprays and degreasing products) at least once per week during pregnancy was associated with 10-44% higher urinary phthalate metabolites. Bottled-water consumption, consumption of food groups usually stored in plastic containers or cans, use of plastic containers for heating food and cosmetic use were not associated with increased concentrations of phthalate metabolites. This large study with repeated phthalate measurements suggests that, in this Spanish setting, sociodemographic and lifestyle factors and household cleaning product use are better predictors of phthalate exposure levels in pregnant women than average water and food consumption and use of plastic containers and cosmetics. 
Phthalates; Pregnancy; Biomonitoring; Variability; Predictors; Endocrine disruptors 
IRIS
• Ammonia
     Literature Search Update – Sept 2015 (private)
     Literature Search Results
• Ammonia, Oral - Problem Formulation
     PubMed - 3/2015
     Items Screened
• Dibutyl Phthalate (DBP)
     Database Searches
          Litsearch September 2014 - February 2015
               Pubmed
          Litsearch March 2015 - June 2015
               Pubmed
               WOS
          LitSearch Jul 2016 - Jan 2017
               Prior search overlap
               WoS
     Excluded: No Primary Data on Health Effects
          Exposure levels
     Studies with Health Effects Data
          Human health effects studies
     Litsearch June 2015 - Jan 2016
          Web of Science
• Diethyl phthalate (DEP)
     Database searches
          Litsearch August 2014 - February 2015
               Pubmed
          Litsearch March 2015 - June 2015
               Pubmed
     Excluded: No Primary Data on Health Effects
          Exposure levels
• Diisobutyl Phthalate (DIBP) Final
     Database Searches
          June 2015 Update
               Web of Science
               New for this Search
          December 2015 Update
               Web of Science
          June 2016 Update
               Toxline
               Web of Science
          January 2017 Update
          July 2017 Update
     No Primary Data on Toxic Effects
          Exposure levels
• Phthalates – Targeted Search for Epidemiological Studies
     Source – all searches
          Pubmed
          WOS
     Excluded
     Source – Mar 2015 Update (Private)
          Pubmed
     Source – Dec 2015 Update (Private)
          Pubmed
          WOS
     Source - Jun 2016 Update (Private)
          WOS