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3222282 
Journal Article 
Indoor phthalate concentration in residential apartments in Chongqing, China: Implications for preschool children's exposure and risk assessment 
Bu, Z; Zhang, Y; Mmereki, D; Yu, W; Li, B 
2016 
Yes 
Atmospheric Environment
ISSN: 1352-2310
EISSN: 1873-2844 
127 
34-45 
English 
is supplemented by 3479726 - Supplementary material
Six phthalates - dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), di(isobutyl) phthalate (DiBP), di(n-butyl) phthalate (DnBP), butyl benzyl phthalate (BBzP) and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) - in indoor gas-phase and dust samples were measured in thirty residential apartments for the first time in Chongqing, China. Monte-Carlo simulation was used to estimate preschool children's exposure via inhalation, non-dietary ingestion and dermal absorption based on gas-phase and dust concentrations. Risk assessment was evaluated by comparing the modeled exposure doses with child-specific benchmarks specified in California's Proposition 65. The detection frequency for all the targeted phthalates was more than 80% except for BBzP. DMP was the most predominant compound in the gas-phase (median = 0.91 mu g/m(3) and 0.82 mu g/m(3) in living rooms and bedrooms, respectively), and DEHP was the most predominant compound in the dust samples (median = 1543 mu g/g and 1450 mu g/g in living rooms and bedrooms, respectively). Correlation analysis suggests that indoor DiBP and DnBP might come from the same emission sources. The simulations showed that the median DEHP daily intake was 3.18-4.28 mu g/day/kg-bw in all age groups, suggesting that it was the greatest of the targeted phthalates. The risk assessment indicated that the exposure doses of DnBP and DEHP exceeded the child-specific benchmarks in more than 90% of preschool children in Chongqing. Therefore, from a children's health perspective, efforts should focus on controlling indoor phthalate concentrations and exposures. 
Phthalate exposure; Gas-phase; Dust; Preschool children; Risk assessment; Child-specific benchmark 
IRIS
• BBP (Butyl benzyl phthalate)
     Literature Search
          Literature Search: January 2016 - June 2016
               WOS
          Literature Search: July 2016 - January 2017
               WOS
     Excluded: No Primary Data on Health Effects
          Exposure levels
• Dibutyl Phthalate (DBP)
     Database Searches
          Litsearch Jan 2016 - July 2016
               WOS
          LitSearch Jul 2016 - Jan 2017
               Prior search overlap
               WoS
     Excluded: No Primary Data on Health Effects
          Exposure levels
• Diethyl phthalate (DEP)
     Database searches
          Jun 2016 update
               Web of Science
          Jan 2017 update
               Prior search overlap
               Web of Science
          Jan 2020 update
               Web of Science
               New for this project
     Excluded: No Primary Data on Health Effects
          Exposure levels
• Diisobutyl Phthalate (DIBP) Final
     Database Searches
          January 2017 Update
               New for this search
               Web of Science
     Secondary Literature
          Regulatory documents
          Risk assessments
     No Primary Data on Toxic Effects
          Exposure levels
• Phthalates – Targeted Search for Epidemiological Studies
     Source – all searches
          WOS
     Excluded
     Source - Jun 2016 Update (Private)
          WOS
     Source - Dec 2016 Update (Private)
          WOS