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3748953 
Journal Article 
Deriving environmental quality standards for perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and related short chain perfluorinated alkyl acids 
Valsecchi, S; Conti, D; Crebelli, R; Polesello, S; Rusconi, M; Mazzoni, M; Preziosi, E; Carere, M; Lucentini, L; Ferretti, E; Balzamo, S; Simeone, MG; Aste, F 
2017 
Yes 
Journal of Hazardous Materials
ISSN: 0304-3894
EISSN: 1873-3336 
323 
Pt A 
84-98 
English 
The evidence that in Northern Italy significant sources of perfluoroalkylacids (PFAA) are present induced the Italian government to establish a Working Group on Environmental Quality Standard (EQS) for PFAA in order to include some of them in the list of national specific pollutants for surface water monitoring according to the Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC). The list of substances included perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and related short chain PFAA such as perfluorobutanoate (PFBA), perfluoropentanoate (PFPeA), perfluorohexanoate (PFHxA) and perfluorobutanesulfonate (PFBS), which is a substitute of perfluorooctanesulfonate. For each of them a dossier collects available data on regulation, physico-chemical properties, emission and sources, occurrence, acute and chronic toxicity on aquatic species and mammals, including humans. Quality standards (QS) were derived for the different protection objectives (pelagic and benthic communities, predators by secondary poisoning, human health via consumption of fishery products and water) according to the European guideline. The lowest QS is finally chosen as the relevant EQS. For PFOA a QS for biota was derived for protection from secondary poisoning and the corresponding QS for water was back-calculated, obtaining a freshwater EQS of 0.1μgL(-1). For PFBA, PFPeA, PFHxA and PFBS threshold limits proposed for drinking waters were adopted as EQS. 
Environmental quality standard; Hazard/risk assessment; Perfluorinated compounds; PFOA; Short chain perfluoroalkyl acids 
• ^Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances (PFAS)
     PFOA (335-67-1) and PFOS (1763-23-1)
          Literature Search – Adverse outcome pathway (2015-present)
               Pubmed
               WOS
     PFBS (375-73-5)
          Literature Search
               Pubmed
               WOS
     PFHxA (307-24-4)
          Literature Search
               Pubmed
               WOS
     PFPeA (2706-90-3)
          Literature Search
               Pubmed
               WOS
     PFBA (375-22-4)
          Literature Search
               Pubmed
               WOS
• PFBA
     Literature Search
          Pubmed
          WOS
     Screening Results
          Reviews/Reg docs
• PFBS
          Pubmed
          WOS
          Reviews/Reg docs
     Search
          PubMed
          WOS
     Excluded
          WOS
• PFHxA
     Title and Abstract Screening
          Excluded
               Supplemental
          Full Text Screening
               Excluded
                    Review, commentary, or letter
          Tagged as Supplemental
               Qualitative exposure only
     Literature Search
          Pubmed
          WOS
• PFNA
     Literature Search
          Toxline
     PFNA May 2019 Update
          Toxnet
• PFOA (335-67-1) and PFOS (1763-23-1)
     Literature Search – Adverse outcome pathway (2015-present)
          Pubmed
          WOS
     Screening Results
          Reviews/Reg docs
     Literature Search Update (2013-2019)
          PubMed
          WOS
• PFPeA
     Literature Search
          Pubmed
          WOS
     Screening Results
          Reviews/Reg docs