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3858509 
Journal Article 
Brominated flame retardants and perfluoroalkyl acids in groundwater, tile drainage, soil, and crop grain following a high application of municipal biosolids to a field 
Gottschall, N; Topp, E; Edwards, M; Payne, M; Kleywegt, S; Lapen, DR 
2017 
Yes 
Science of the Total Environment
ISSN: 0048-9697
EISSN: 1879-1026 
574 
1345-1359 
English 
Dewatered municipal biosolids (DMB) were applied at a rate of 22Mgdwha(-1) to an agricultural field in fall 2008. Concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs; BDE-47, -99, -100, -153, -154, -183, -197, -207, -209), other brominated flame retardants (BFRs; HBB, PBEB, DBDPE, BTBPE) and perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs; PFHxS, PFOS, PFDS, PFOSA, PFHpA, PFOA, PFNA, PFDA, PFUnA, PFDoA, PFTA) were monitored in tile drainage, groundwater (2m, 4m and 6m depth), soil cores (0-0.3m) pre- and post-application, DMB aggregates incorporated into the soil post-application, and in wheat (Triticum spp.) planted post-application. Several compounds were detected in soil and water pre-application and on a reference field plot. PBDEs, other BFRs and PFAAs were detected in tile drainage and 2m groundwater throughout the post-application study period; a few PBDEs were also detected sporadically at lower depths in groundwater. Some of these compounds had not been detected pre-application, while some exceeded reference field plot/pre-application levels (some significantly (p<0.05) in tile drainage); both cases indicating biosolid-based water contamination. In DMB aggregates, several PBDE congeners were found to have dissipated exponentially, with reductions >90% in many of them within 1year post-application. Exponential dissipation of other BFRs and PFAAs in DMB aggregates were not significant. No PBDEs, other BFRs, or PFAAs were detected in wheat grain. 
• ^Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances (PFAS)
     PFOA (335-67-1) and PFOS (1763-23-1)
          Literature Search – Adverse outcome pathway (2015-present)
               Pubmed
               WOS
     PFDoA (307-55-1)
          Literature Search
               Pubmed
               WOS
     PFUnA (2058-94-8)
          Literature Search
               Pubmed
               WOS
     PFDA (335-76-2)
          Literature Search
               Pubmed
               WOS
     PFNA (375-95-1)
          Literature Search
               Pubmed
               WOS
     PFHpA (375-85-9)
          Literature Search
               Pubmed
               WOS
     PFDS (335-77-3)
          Literature Search
               Pubmed
               WOS
     PFHxS (355-46-4)
          Literature search
               Pubmed
               WOS
     PFOSA (754-91-6)
          Literature Search
               Pubmed
               WOS
• PFDA
     Literature Search
          Pubmed
          WOS
     Screening Results
          Excluded/Not on Topic
     Title and Abstract Screening
          Excluded
• PFDoA
     Literature Search
          Pubmed
          WOS
     Screening Results
          Excluded/Not on Topic
• PFDS
     Literature Search
          Pubmed
          WOS
• PFHpA
     Literature Search
          Pubmed
          WOS
     Screening Results
          Excluded/Not on Topic
• PFHxS
     Literature Search
          PubMed
          WOS
     Screening Results
          Excluded/Not on Topic
     Title and Abstract Screening
          Excluded
               Not relevant to PECO
• PFNA
     Literature Search
          Pubmed
          WOS
     Screening Results
          Excluded/Not on Topic
     PFNA Literature Search pre-2019
          Pubmed
          WOS
     PFNA May 2019 Update
          Pubmed
          Web of Science
     Title and Abstract Screening
          Excluded
               Not relevant to PECO
• PFOA (335-67-1) and PFOS (1763-23-1)
     Literature Search – Adverse outcome pathway (2015-present)
          Pubmed
          WOS
     Screening Results
          Excluded/Not on Topic
     Literature Search Update (2013-2019)
          PubMed
          WOS
• PFOSA
     Literature Search
          Pubmed
          WOS
     Screening Results
          Excluded/Not on Topic
• PFUnA
     Literature Search
          Pubmed
          WOS
     Screening Results
          Excluded/Not on Topic