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3045442 
Journal Article 
Phthalate metabolites in urine of Chinese young adults: Concentration, profile, exposure and cumulative risk assessment 
Gao, CJ; Liu, LY; Ma, WL; Ren, NQ; Guo, Y; Zhu, NZ; Jiang, L; Li, YF; Kannan, K 
2016 
Yes 
Science of the Total Environment
ISSN: 0048-9697
EISSN: 1879-1026 
543 
Pt A 
19-27 
English 
Phthalates are widely used in consumer products. People are frequently exposed to phthalates due to their applications in daily life. In this study, 14 phthalate metabolites were analyzed in 108 urine samples collected from Chinese young adults using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The total concentrations of 14 phthalate metabolites ranged from 71.3 to 2670ng/mL, with the geometric mean concentration of 306ng/mL. mBP and miBP were the two most abundant compounds, accounting for 48% of the total concentrations. Principal component analysis suggested two major sources of phthalates: one dominated by the DEHP metabolites and one by the group of mCPP, mBP and miBP metabolites. The estimated daily intakes of DMP, DEP, DBP, DiBP and DEHP were 1.68, 2.14, 4.12, 3.52 and 1.26-2.98μg/kg-bw/day, respectively. In a sensitivity analysis, urinary concentration and body weight were the most influential variables for human exposure estimation. Furthermore, cumulative risk for hazard quotient (HQ) and hazard index (HI) were evaluated. Nearly half of Chinese young adults had high HI values exceeding the safe threshold. This is the first study on the occurrence and human exposure to urinary phthalate metabolites with Chinese young adults. 
Phthalates; Urine; Human exposure; Cumulative risk assessment; China 
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