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3858250 
Journal Article 
The use of carbon adsorbents for the removal of perfluoroalkyl acids from potable reuse systems 
Inyang, M; Dickenson, ERV 
2017 
Yes 
Chemosphere
ISSN: 0045-6535
EISSN: 1879-1298 
184 
168-175 
English 
Bench- and pilot-scale sorption tests were used to probe the performance of several biochars at removing perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAA) from field waters, compared to granular activated carbon (GAC). Screening tests using organic matter-free water resulted in hardwood (HWC) (Kd = 41 L g(-1)) and pinewood (PWC) (Kd = 49 L g(-1)) biochars having the highest perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) removal performance that was comparable to bituminous coal GAC (Kd = 41 L g(-1)). PWC and HWC had a stronger affinity for PFOA sorbed in Lake Mead surface water (KF = 11 mg((1-n)) L(n) g(-1)) containing a lower (2 mg L(-1)) dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration than in a tertiary-filtered wastewater (KF = 8 mg((1-n)) L(n) g(-1)) with DOC of 4.9 mg L(-1). A pilot-scale study was performed using three parallel adsorbers (GAC, anthracite, and HWC biochar) treating the same tertiary-filtered wastewater. Compared to HWC, and anthracite, GAC was the most effective in mitigating perfluoropentanoic acid (PFPnA), perfluorohexanoic acid (PHxA), PFOA, perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), and DOC (45-67% removed at 4354 bed volumes) followed by HWC, and then anthracite. Based on bench- and pilot-scale results, shorter-chain PFAA [perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA), PFPnA, or PFHxA] were more difficult to remove with both biochar and GAC than the longer-chain, PFOS and PFOA. 
• ^Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances (PFAS)
     PFOA (335-67-1) and PFOS (1763-23-1)
          Literature Search – Adverse outcome pathway (2015-present)
               Pubmed
     PFHxA (307-24-4)
          Literature Search
               Pubmed
     PFPeA (2706-90-3)
          Literature Search
               Pubmed
     PFBA (375-22-4)
          Literature Search
               Pubmed
• PFBA
     Literature Search
          Pubmed
          WOS
     Screening Results
          Excluded/Not on Topic
• PFHxA
     Literature Search
          Pubmed
     Literature Search: February 2018 Update
          Toxline
          WoS
     Screening Results
          Excluded/Not on Topic
     Title and Abstract Screening
          Excluded
               Not relevant to PECO
     Literature Search
          Pubmed
          WOS
          Toxline
• PFNA
     Literature Search
          Pubmed
          Toxline
     PFNA May 2019 Update
          Toxnet
• PFOA (335-67-1) and PFOS (1763-23-1)
     Literature Search – Adverse outcome pathway (2015-present)
          Pubmed
     Screening Results
          Excluded/Not on Topic
     Literature Search Update (2013-2019)
          PubMed
          WOS
• PFPeA
     Literature Search
          Pubmed
     Screening Results
          Excluded/Not on Topic