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3856453 
Journal Article 
Removal efficiency of multiple poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in drinking water using granular activated carbon (GAC) and anion exchange (AE) column tests 
Mccleaf, P; Englund, S; Östlund, A; Lindegren, K; Wiberg, K; Ahrens, L 
2017 
Yes 
Water Research
ISSN: 0043-1354
EISSN: 1879-2448 
120 
77-87 
English 
Poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) have been detected in drinking water at relatively high concentrations throughout the world which has led to implementation of regulatory guidelines for specific PFASs in drinking water in several European countries and in the U.S. The Swedish National Food Agency has determined that the drinking water of over one third of the country's municipal consumers is at risk or already affected by PFAS contamination. The present study investigated the effects of perfluorocarbon chain length, functional group and isomer structure (branched or linear) on removal of multiple PFASs using granular activated carbon (GAC, Filtrasorb(®) 400) and anion exchange (AE, Purolite(®) A600) column experiments. The removal of 14 different PFASs, i.e. the C3C11, C14 perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) (PFBA, PFPeA, PFHxA, PFHpA, PFOA, PFNA, PFDA, PFUnDA, PFDoDA, PFTeDA), perfluorooctane sulfonamide (FOSA), and the C4, C6, C8 perfluoroalkyl sulfonic acids (PFSAs) (PFBS, PFHxS, PFOS), was monitored for a 217 day period. The results indicate the selective nature of PFAS removal as the absorbents are loaded with PFASs and dissolved organic carbon (DOC). A clear relationship between perfluorocarbon chain length and removal efficiency of PFASs using GAC and AE was found while PFASs with sulfonate functional groups displayed greater removal efficiency than those with carboxylate groups. Similarly, time to column breakthrough increased with increasing perfluorocarbon chain length and was greater for the PFSAs than the PFCAs for both GAC and AE. Shorter carbon chained PFASs such as PFBA, PFPeA, PFHxA showed desorption behavior and long-chained PFASs showed increased removal towards the end of the experiment indicating agglomeration or micelle development. Linear isomers of PFOS, PFHxS, and perfluorooctane sulfonamide (FOSA) had greater column removal efficiencies using GAC (and also for AE at greater bed volume throughput) than the branched and this difference increased at greater bed volume throughputs. The GAC and AE columns showed a poor correlation between DOC and PFAS removal efficiency. The results indicate that designers and operators of AE and GAC treatment processes must take into consideration the selective nature of PFAS removal and associated desorption of short-chain PFCAs during co-removal of multiple PFASs. 
PFASs; Removal; Anion exchange resin; Granular activated carbon; Drinking water; Treatment techniques 
• ^Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances (PFAS)
     PFOA (335-67-1) and PFOS (1763-23-1)
          Literature Search – Adverse outcome pathway (2015-present)
               Pubmed
               WOS
     PFBS (375-73-5)
          Literature Search
               Pubmed
               WOS
     PFDoA (307-55-1)
          Literature Search
               Pubmed
               WOS
     PFUnA (2058-94-8)
          Literature Search
               Pubmed
               WOS
     PFDA (335-76-2)
          Literature Search
               Pubmed
               WOS
     PFNA (375-95-1)
          Literature Search
               Pubmed
               WOS
     PFHpA (375-85-9)
          Literature Search
               Pubmed
               WOS
     PFHxA (307-24-4)
          Literature Search
               Pubmed
               WOS
     PFPeA (2706-90-3)
          Literature Search
               Pubmed
               WOS
     PFBA (375-22-4)
          Literature Search
               Pubmed
               WOS
     PFHxS (355-46-4)
          Literature search
               Pubmed
               WOS
     PFOSA (754-91-6)
          Literature Search
               WOS
• PFBA
     Literature Search
          Pubmed
          WOS
     Screening Results
          Excluded/Not on Topic
• PFBS
          Pubmed
          WOS
          Excluded/Not on Topic
     Search
          PubMed
          WOS
     Excluded
          PubMed
          WOS
• PFDA
     Literature Search
          Pubmed
          WOS
     Screening Results
          Excluded/Not on Topic
     Title and Abstract Screening
          Excluded
• PFDoA
     Literature Search
          Pubmed
          WOS
     Screening Results
          Excluded/Not on Topic
• PFHpA
     Literature Search
          Pubmed
          WOS
     Screening Results
          Excluded/Not on Topic
• PFHxS
     Literature Search
          PubMed
          WOS
     Screening Results
          Excluded/Not on Topic
• PFNA
     Literature Search
          Pubmed
          Toxline
          WOS
     Screening Results
          Excluded/Not on Topic
     PFNA May 2019 Update
          Web of Science
          Pubmed
          Toxnet
     PFNA Literature Search pre-2019
          WOS
• PFOA (335-67-1) and PFOS (1763-23-1)
     Literature Search – Adverse outcome pathway (2015-present)
          Pubmed
          WOS
     Screening Results
          Excluded/Not on Topic
     Literature Search Update (2013-2019)
          PubMed
          WOS
• PFOSA
     Literature Search
          Pubmed
          WOS
     Screening Results
          Excluded/Not on Topic
• PFPeA
     Literature Search
          Pubmed
          WOS
     Screening Results
          Excluded/Not on Topic
• PFUnA
     Literature Search
          Pubmed
          WOS
     Screening Results
          Excluded/Not on Topic