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1311703 
Journal Article 
Occurrence and Profiles of Phthalates in Foodstuffs from China and Their Implications for Human Exposure 
Guo, Y; Zhang, Z; Liu, L; Li, Y; Ren, N; Kannan, K 
In Press 
Yes 
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
ISSN: 0021-8561
EISSN: 1520-5118 
English 
Phthalate esters are used in a wide variety of consumer products, and human exposure to this class of compounds is widespread. Nevertheless, studies on dietary exposure of humans to phthalates are limited. In this study, nine phthalate esters were analyzed in eight categories of foodstuffs (n = 78) collected from Harbin and Shanghai, China, in 2011. Dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), diisobutyl phthalate (DIBP), benzyl butyl phthalate (BzBP), and diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) were frequently detected in food samples. DEHP was the major compound found in most of the food samples, with concentrations that ranged from below the limit of quantification (LOQ) to 762 ng/g wet weight (wt). The concentrations of phthalates in food samples from China were comparable to concentrations reported for several other countries, but the profiles were different; DMP was found more frequently in Chinese foods than in foods from other countries. The estimated daily dietary intake of phthalates (EDI(diet)) was calculated based on the concentrations measured and the daily ingestion rates of food items. The EDI(diet) values for DMP, DEP, DIBP, DBP, BzBP, and DEHP (based on mean concentrations) were 0.092, 0.051, 0.505, 0.703, 0.022, and 1.60 μg/kg-bw/d, respectively, for Chinese adults. The EDI(diet) values calculated for phthalates were below the reference doses suggested by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Comparison of total daily intakes, reported previously based on a biomonitoring study, with the current dietary intake estimates suggests that diet is the main source of DEHP exposure in China. Nevertheless, diet accounted for only <10% of the total exposure to DMP, DEP, DBP, and DIBP, which suggested the existence of other sources of exposure to these phthalates. 
phthalate esters; dietary intake; DEHP; foodstuffs; total diet survey 
IRIS
• BBP (Butyl benzyl phthalate)
     Literature Search
          LitSearch Dec 2012
               PubMed
               WOS
     Excluded: No Primary Data on Health Effects
          Exposure levels
• Dibutyl Phthalate (DBP)
     Database Searches
          Pubmed
          Web of Science
     LitSearch Nov 2012
          PubMed
          WOS
          Merged reference set
     LitSearch Dec 2012 - June 2013
          Web of Science
     Excluded: No Primary Data on Health Effects
          Exposure levels
• Diethyl phthalate (DEP)
     Database searches
          Initial Litsearch
               PubMed
               WOS
               Merged reference set
          LitSearch Nov 2012-Aug 2013
               WoS
     Excluded: No Primary Data on Health Effects
          Exposure levels
• Diisobutyl Phthalate (DIBP) Final
     Database Searches
          March 2014 Database Search
               PubMed
               Web of Science
          September 2014 update
               Toxline
               Web of Science
          June 2015 Update
               Toxline
               Web of Science
          December 2015 Update
               Web of Science
          June 2016 Update
               Toxline
          January 2017 Update
     No Primary Data on Toxic Effects
          Exposure levels
• Phthalates – Targeted Search for Epidemiological Studies
     Source – all searches
          Pubmed
          WOS
     Excluded
     Source – no date limit through June 2013 (Private)
          Pubmed
          WOS
     Source – Dec 2014 Update (Private)
          Pubmed